Learning how to feel about World War I

This past week, Tracy and I had a chance to visit major battlegrounds of Ypres, Somme, Verdun for the centennial of the WW1 armistice. If you have the chance, I highly recommend it. The memorials, cemeteries, and battlefields are accessible and well-traveled over the past 100 years.

World War One Armistice Day was Nov 11, 1918 – exactly 100 years ago.

This was the war to end all wars. The war America was part of but not too much, so we don’t learn much about it as WW2. The war where multiple countries had gone all in, in a geopolitical poker match costing over 15 million human souls.

But geopolitics is one thing. Seeing the gravestones is another.

A 26 year old private from Lancashire Infantry. An unknown soldier from the Australian Engineers. An American from Michigan, killed on Nov 10, the day before peace. Individual gravestones hold stories told, lost, and retold to help us remember that each of the individuals killed in World War I had their own sorrows and family left behind.

Hundreds of small military cemeteries are scattered around the farmlands of these battlefields. I have no idea how many there are, but our visit aimed to pay our respects to the most significant in the time we had.

We started in Ypres, a small Belgian city near the French/Belgium border that saw heavy fighting. It wasn’t just a single battle – the first, second and third battles of Ypres happened in 1914, 1915, and 1917.

Tyne Cot Memorial Service

Our highlight was a ceremonial burial of two unidentified Australian soldiers at the Tyne Cot Cemetery (the remains had only recently been excavated). 100 years later, the respect of WWI soldiers holds strong. We also stopped by Essex Farm Cemetery (location of the famous poem “In Flanders Fields“), the Vancouver Corner at St. Julien where a Canadian unit defended against the first use of gas warfare, and finally a german cemetery in Langemark that showed us a flash of equal and opposite tragedy.

At Ypres, busses of Belgian schoolchildren visited the same battlefields and cemeteries to get early education of the Great War. I hope they visit again, and again as their world views evolve.

The next stop was the Somme, where British troops went over the top to their deaths in an initially disastrous offensive. We listened to Dan Carlin’s (apparently amateur) WW1 podcast as we drove between the memorials of Beaumont-Hamel, Thiepval, Pozières, and Delville Wood. All were powerful in their own way – the names of 70,000 missing soldiers engraved on Theipval’s massive memorial will be especially hard to forget.

Thiepval Memorial – 70,000 missing soldiers engraved in its walls

Two and a half hours away was Verdun, a beautiful forest of death. The Douaumont Ossuary is one of the largest and most powerful French memorials – over 10000 white crosses lay in perfect grids overlooking autumn oaks. Equally beautiful was the Meuse-Argonne cemetery 45 minutes away, the tribute to American soldiers who laid down their lives for the final offensive to win the war. 16000 bodies lay in 8 perfectly organized blocks in the largest WW1 American memorial. The symmetry is mesmerizing.

On our last day, we tried to visit Vimy Ridge and Armistice Glade in Compiègne. We realized too late that PM Trudeau was honoring the Canadian effort at Vimy Ridge, and French PM Macron had reserved the day for the glade. Disappointing, but understandable as there is only one centennial to share.



First Australian Division Memorial in Ponzieres

Vancouver Corner at St. Julien – Where Canadians held off the one of the first German gas attacks.

Delville Woods – South African Monument

Douaumont Memorial in Verdun


Cemeteries, Memorials, Battlefields, Museums. Often they had similar designs and content. Museums always had visuals of western front battle lines and every one had uniforms. Gravestones were standardized and regimented. Memorials were statues with obituaries. A preserved trench pretty much looked like what you’d expect.

But this repetition didn’t have a boring effect. The repetition gave a persistent reminder of human tragedy, zoomed in and out. From the geopolitical and strategic analysis in museums, to the common trench experience, to individual stories of loss and grief, we could then back out to memorials where we could viscerally understand each other’s loss and respects.

We can extract geopolitical predictions from historical trends to warn against economic impact of potential war in our future lifetime. But in my opinion the biggest deterrent is looking upon these graves and the gravity of millions of individual stories that were cut short and never told.

All major WWI Commonwealth Memorials include a block with the quote “Their name liveth for evermore”

“Thrawn” is a breath of fresh Star Wars air.

Timothy Zahn’s new book, Thrawn (April 2017) is a brilliant novel to stand against the string of relatively weak Star Wars movies that have been coming out these past few years. (Note, it is on sale for $1.99 for the next 5 days)

I love this book because it is strategic but simple to understand. It gives complexity to characters that become villains of the Star Wars galaxy. It has smart allies and antagonists across the board, and is often a political, military, and social battle of equals with their own strengths and weaknesses. Thrawn is a brilliant strategist but terrible politician. Arhinda, the second “protagonist” is a brilliant bureaucrat but overly paranoid and is all too willing to change loyalties when advantageous for her.

Interspersed between the chapters is Thrawn’s monologue or thoughts. They are pithy and feel like they belong in Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War”. Yet they are never cheesy and I think we’d do well today to follow them:

All people have regrets. Warriors are no exceptions. One would hope it was possible to distinguish between events caused by one’s carelessness or lack of ability and those caused by circumstances or forces beyond one’s control. But in practice, there is no difference. All forms of regret sear equally deeply into the mind and soul. All forms leave scars of equal bitterness.

In Arihnda Pryce, you can see where seemingly innocent but ambitious behavior transforms into shades of manipulation and cruelty. I love her character development so much.

In Thrawn, you see an internal struggle of being part of a genocidal empire that helps keep the peace in the Star Wars universe. Thrawn is a good guy on the wrong side, believing in stability above all else. His interactions with our main character, Eli, show that rather than being driven by paranoia, Thrawn is driven by principle and loyalty to his friends.

A friend need not be kept either within sight or within reach. A friend must be allowed the freedom to find and follow his own path.

Timothy Zahn wrote the original Thrawn books has done a great job tying in the post-Disney Star Wars with the “Legend Extended Universe” that is made “not canon”. I haven’t read the original Thrawn books, but hope to get to them as soon as possible. This is very well written YA, and makes me want to dive head-first into the Star Wars universe.

Asimov’s “Second Foundation” continues his streak of simple characters but brilliant imagination

Asimov’s third book of his Foundation series – “Second Foundation” is a 4 star book, purely on merit of the strategic climax pulled off in the story. I think it is worth a read to experience the story, but it suffers from the same things as his previous books in the series: static characters and very simplistic storylines.

Two thoughts here:

  1. The second foundation reminds me of the one of those stories that have a ton of story and backstory… just to set up the big pun (in this case a strategic stroke of brilliance). 
  2. It also reminds me of a big chess game with grand strokes. He effectively believes in Great people and naively focuses on a small subset of people that “change the course of history”. People prepare their chess moves in advance, and proceed to out-duel each other in a series of “i think you think i think” battles.

It’s hard to explain why Asimov is not a beautiful writer, but the stories always feel transactional, the twists forced, and sides with heavily unfair advantages. There’s little nuance to the books, and it all feels like a mediocre storyline that carries you over to the Little Twist, and then the Big Twist.

Overall I enjoy Asimov’s vision, themes and the diversity in which people engage with the “greater purpose” of the Seldon plan. Some people become complacent, while others become skeptical, and others fanatical. He uses generational gaps as a tool to refresh characters and show that sometimes the lessons of the past are forgotten.

Asimov was only 22 when he wrote this genre-defining “Foundation” series. I’ll attribute to his youth the brilliant imagination but simple understanding of human nature in this series. Despite whatever criticism is commonly leveled against Asimov, he rightfully deserves being one of the “big three” science fiction authors.


Thoughts on “Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck”

Mark Manson’s “The Subtle Art of Not Giving a Fuck” is a popular book with a catchy title and filled with lots of f bombs to live up to the title. Most friends’ reviews were along the lines of “despite the title this is actually a thoughtful and useful book”. I agree with this assessment.

The book is probably not worth $15 or whatever the retail is, but is a good reminder for the millennial generation not to be special entitled snowflakes and be intentional about what we care about.

What I really got of this is various ways in which entitlement creeps into our lives, including mine.

The deeper the pain, the more helpless we feel against our problems, and the more entitlement we adopt to compensate for those problems. This entitlement plays out in one of two ways: 1. I’m awesome and the rest of you all suck, so I deserve special treatment. 2. I suck and the rest of you are all awesome, so I deserve special treatment.

Entitlement and indignation then come hand in hand:

“Victimhood chic” is in style on both the right and the left today, among both the rich and the poor. In fact, this may be the first time in human history that every single demographic group has felt unfairly victimized simultaneously. And they’re all riding the highs of the moral indignation that comes along with it.

These kinds of topics are difficult to articulate, but Manson manages to elicit nods rather than provoke defensiveness. Instead of making the reader think “fuck you, I’ve tried this and it doesn’t work”, it made me try to map his words to situations I’ve seen in my life. At another angle, it was presented in a way that didn’t blame a global epidemic, but expressed ways to live your own life.

Aside from entitlement, the rest of the book is around values, choice, and how to handle the inevitability of death. A lot of these are relatively cliche, but do well to round out the book.

Manson’s method of operation involves stories and anecdotes from his life, history, and mythology – the stories are illustrative, but not comprehensive. Manson’s goal is not to create a perfectly defensible argument for his life guidelines, but rather to enable us to draw connections between our own experiences and his themes. It’s easy to pick out inconsistencies in his logic, but that isn’t necessarily the point.


All the quotes I highlighted are on my goodreads, but here are a few ones that were useful takeaways for me

On uncertainty

Why uncertainty isn’t always a bad thing, and how to manage it as an asset rather than a liability.

Uncertainty removes our judgments of others; it preempts the unnecessary stereotyping and biases that we otherwise feel when we see somebody on TV, in the office, or on the street. Uncertainty also relieves us of our judgment of ourselves. We don’t know if we’re lovable or not; we don’t know how attractive we are; we don’t know how successful we could potentially become. The only way to achieve these things is to remain uncertain of them and be open to finding them out through experience.

An illustrative but not comprehensive anecdote

Here, he’s not saying Russia is the best model to follow, but that the perspective isn’t black and white.

But, in the “free” West, my Russian teacher continued, there existed an abundance of economic opportunity—so much economic opportunity that it became far more valuable to present yourself in a certain way, even if it was false, than to actually be that way.

On f bombs

An example of the litany of f-bombs scattered throughout the book. But useful ones.

What Becker is saying, in essence, is that we’re all driven by fear to give way too many fucks about something, because giving a fuck about something is the only thing that distracts us from the reality and inevitability of our own death.

On taking either no responsibility or too much responsibility

This is something that I know i do all the time – it’s good to have validation that it is a legitimate problem and to be taken seriously.

In general, entitled people fall into one of two traps in their relationships. Either they expect other people to take responsibility for their problems: “I wanted a nice relaxing weekend at home. You should have known that and canceled your plans.” Or they take on too much responsibility for other people’s problems: “She just lost her job again, but it’s probably my fault because I wasn’t as supportive of her as I could have been. I’m going to help her rewrite her résumé tomorrow.”

Ted Chiang’s “Story of your life and Others” hits hard with sharp prose and provoking worlds

Overall thoughts

I just re-read Ted Chiang’s “Story of your life and Others” this weekend after reading it for the first time 3 weeks ago. It is now upped form a 4 to a 4.5 after having taken the time to digest his stories and ideas.

Ted Chiang is 5/5 for his ideas. 5/5 for opening up my mind and exposing ideas that I would never have thought about. 4.5/5 for writing, and characters. Every bit of fantastical world-building was lived in by beautifully written characters.

I’d put him at 3/5 for storytelling and his story arcs. The stories often have unsatisfying endings. I feel they collapse in the absurdity of these worlds taken to their logical (and crazy) conclusions. But you are so sucked into the novel world that is easy to forgive the imperfect story arcs. 

Chiang’s stories are nuanced and technical in a way that if you don’t read carefully or understand the science, you can miss the point of the story entirely. I gained more by googling online after I read each story to confirm what actually happened. Chiang’s characters are pushed and pulled with flaws in moral compass, ego, ignorance, or the simply the hand they’re dealt in the randomness of the universe.

I liked all the stories, but my favorite three were the emotional power of “Story of your life”,  the humorous yet powerful “Hell is the Absence of God” and creative cross-section of our life and values in “Liking what you see”.

<spoilers below>

Short Stories

Tower of Babylon

The “Tower of Babylon” is a fantasy world of a Tower being built to reach the heavens. The Tower passes the sun and stars, but has reached a physical ceiling. Our our protagonists are miners contracted to break the barrier from Earth to Heaven. What does it mean to try to reach god? In the end, this was a solid story, and it really exists for the kicker at the end.

(SPOILER, just like the rest of this post) Apparently this Babylon world is a “three dimensional torus”. I followed some laymans explanations of what a torus is, and then gave up. (What I got was a few examples (1) imagine being walking along the inside of a donut, but in three dimensions. Or (2) basically portal walls at some unspecified, finite point in all directions. Or (3) a video game where going off the right brings you back to the left.). Thank you Ted for the TIL.



This is a hilarious story about the ego and contempt of overwhelming intellectualism of a superhuman benefitting from a super-drug. The lessons here are:

  1. Overwhelming intelligence can create unexpected advantages when gaming the system
  2. But overwhelming intellectual power is not invincible
  3. You can know everything in the world but still have various goals and pursuits.

One theme is the classic “intellectualism vs. utilitarianism” debate of Leon (main character) vs. Reynolds (antagonist/foil). Leon advances intellectualism for the sake intellectual curiosity, while Reynolds does it for utilitarian purposes. Leon’s intellectual pursuit seems somewhat selfish and short-sighted at first. However, Reynold’s utilitarian approach goes down a hole of moral ambiguity and despotic behavior in an effort to make the world a better place. It doesn’t seem to be worth it. This is a common theme!

The fun parts are the crazy mind-chess going on, where I think, you think, I think you’re going to do XYZ. Leon plays against amateurs in the real world, but his demise is his ego, as he walks unprepared into a trap.


Division by Zero

“Division by Zero”  is a tragic story of a woman who’s mentally tortured by her inability to resolve a mathematical inconsistency that undermines all of arithmetic.

The story strikes at the essence of mathematics. It is the theoretical, not the experimental that is interesting. It is the self consistent universe that creates 1+1=2 and the litany of explanations of the universe that follow.

“She, like many, had always thought that mathematics did not derive its meaning from the universe, but rather imposed some meaning onto the universe […] But no more. Mathematics was inconsistent […] and a formal theory was nothing if not consistent. Math was empirical, no more than that, and it held no interest for her. 

I think it also hits hard at the inability for people to feel the way another feels when their essence is be shook to their core. The difference between sympathy and empathy is often brought up in stories (sympathy means you understand another’s feelings, empathy is when you feel their feelings), but this one turns it on it’s head. The man’s empathy becomes his reason to let go rather than stay.

He opened his mouth to say that he knew exactly what she meant, that he had felt the same things as she. But he stopped himself: for this was an empathy that separated rather than united them, and he couldn’t tell her that.


[My Top 3] Story of your Life

I don’t think this was one of the top in the beginning, because I didn’t really get it. After reading some summaries, this is brilliant and beautiful in a way difficult to explain (other than through the words of the story itself).

In “Story of your Life”, Louise knows her daughter will die at 25 before her daughter is conceived. She knows the future from studying an alien language that ties past, present, and future into one. But instead of fighting her future, she proceeds to conceive her daughter, and watches her die.

The premise is elegant, and the execution is beautiful. I could read this over and over and not get tired. In a weird way, heptapod semagrams are similar to books in that you are engaging with a the future is set in stone. Why read a book when you already know the future exists? The act of a book being read is just as important as it’s existence.

For the heptapods, all language was performative. Instead of using language to inform, they used language to actualize. Sure, heptapods already knew what would be said in any conversation; but in order for their knowledge to be true, the conversation would have to take place.

Just like the headliner Ken Liu’s short stories (“Paper Menagerie”), this is by far the most beautiful and emotional of the collection.

An alternative explanation I read is that there is no time travel/precognition, but the heptapod language allowed Louise to tell her story in a way where past, present and future are interconnected. This is a very good article and highly recommend.

This is the source material for the 2016 movie Arrival.


Seventy-Two Letters

InSeventy-Two Letters Stratton lives in a world resembling 19th century Britain, but where automata (robots) can be given instructions with a written seventy-two letter code. He is a scientist on the verge of creating robots that can do skilled labor. This gets everyone scared of self-programming automata taking their jobs.

But what’s scarier is that politicians see the technology behind skilled robots as a path to genetically engineer humans. Chiang draws from modern themes such as AI taking away jobs, intersection between religion and programming, and ethical dilemmas of genetic engineering and reproduces them in an entirely alternate universe, similar to post-industrial revolution Britain.

What a weird but fantastical story. For me, “Seventy-Two Letters” was much better during my second and more detailed read.


The Evolution of Human Science

“The Evolution of Human Science” is a journal article about a superior intellectual species (metahumans) and its’ relationship with humans. Metahumans are able to neural link, and therefore have advanced science beyond any human could hope to achieve – therefore human science simply becomes reverse-engineering phenomena discovered by metahumans.

And this is “fine” to the metahumans, because this is how it should be. And this is no different than humans discovering the natural world. Basically science is not about the limits of what exists, but the steady discovery by the human species. Relatively straightforward.

No one denies the many benefits of metahuman science, but one of its costs to human researchers was the realization that they would likely never make an original contribution to science again. Some left the field altogether, but those who stayed shifted their attention away from original research and toward hermeneutics: interpreting the scientific work of metahumans.


[My Top 3] Hell is the Absence of God

This one is a fun story about faith.

Hell is the Absence of God” takes place in an almost normal world, but where heaven and hell have physical manifestations. Divine visitations by angels spread miracles and tragedies like pixie dust. People’s souls visibly rise or sink into heaven and hell, respectively, when they die.

The story explores individuals’ motivations for believing in god, whether it be selfish, misguided, true worship, or influenced by experiencing a miracle. Miracle sightings and statistics are rigorously recorded and analyzed – however in the end miracles are miracles, random and inexplicable.

I like it because it is fun, but deep. Nobody knows why anything happens, nobody really cares, but if any one thing is true, “Hell is the Absence of God”.


[My Top 3] Liking what you See

Liking what you see” is an innovative meta-documentary discussing calliagnosia, a procedure to make one unable to perceive beauty.

If there were a world where beauty were equalized, what would that mean? Individuals with natural advantages around beauty ould lose them. Advertisements would not be able abuse “beauty” as a magical spell to make people more likely to buy a product. Is this a world we could handle?

Experiments using neurostat allowed researchers to identify the neurological circuit responsible for perceiving beauty in faces, and thus essentially invent calliagnosia.

The narrative explores the limits to which we would be willing to go down this train of thought. If we want to remove beauty, why not pleasure in sound or the ability to recognize others? The latter removes our ability to be manipulated by advertisements, but also reduces our quality of life significantly.

The overarching questions becomes: where do we draw the line for evening the playing field? Is it up to an institution to enforce these kinds of restrictions? Why should they have the power to do it? This comes close to philosophies around whether you trust the institution to do the right thing for you, or whether you believe in an individual’s freedom and prerogative.

This is just the latest example of political correctness run amok. The people advocating calli are well-intentioned, but what they’re doing is infantilizing us. The very notion that beauty is something we need to be protected from is insulting.

The subjects of the documentary are a perfect mix of naive, unreliable, and thoughtful with a peek into their own lives. Chiang has taken a novel style and executed perfectly in this story.

Follow my Goodreads quote dump are here.

Even though some of Chiang’s stories are available online, I highly recommend buying or borrowing the book. I’ve gotten two full reads from it already, and am certain to come back to it many times in the future!


Mistborn’s study of religion seems to reflect Sanderson’s exploration of his own faith

The Mistborn series was Brandon Sanderson’s biggest hit… (before the Stormlight Archives blew it out of the water.)

But the series is still very good, and showed off Sanderson’s ability to create a beautiful world, fun dialogue, and an interesting magic system. Most brilliantly, it showed off Sanderson’s ability to create a crazy story arc that unwraps into a huge, sprawling plot and wraps itself back up again with a tiny bow on top.

That being said, the most interesting thing to me in Mistborn (and Sanderson) is around Religion.

Mistborn and Sanderson and Religion

Sanderson is a Mormon, which gives light to some patterns in his writing. You can see him teasing the edge of normal adult themes but the books stay mostly PG. His action is brilliant, but his conversations around romance and relationships have a child-like innocence.

The man seems to have a constant, intellectual struggle with his own relationship with the LDS (Latter Day Saints), and is open about it in his blog post reflecting on JK Rowling’s revelation of Dumbledore’s sexuality. This blog post is so, so characteristic of his open-minded writing style, and makes me appreciate that his character and his books are cut from the same cloth.

How much of his struggles are in the mind of Sazed? How does he think about featuring socially liberal characters and undergoing an study of hundreds of theoretical religions?

“It sounds to me, young one,” Haddek said, “that you’re searching for something that cannot be found.” “The truth?” Sazed said. “No,” Haddek replied. “A religion that requires no faith of its believers.”

I can’t help but wonder if Sazed’s intellectual, dispassionate study of religions around the world parallel’s Sanderson’s own attempt to question but come to terms with the Mormon Church.

How had Sazed become the one that people came to with their problems? Couldn’t they sense that he was simply a hypocrite, capable of formulating answers that sounded good, yet incapable of following his own advice? He felt lost. He felt a weight, squeezing him, telling him to simply give up.

In general, the entire series toys with the idea and roles religion and prophecy play in our lives. The idea of religious idols getting twisted and transformed by its practitioners is a consistent theme across the three books. Whether it be the Lord Ruler, the Survivor, the Survivor of the Flames, or the capital B big religion, they all come with their illusion of legitimacy, flaws, and fights between those of the faith.

I think Sanderson is the best fantasy author of this decade, and the way he approaches faith in his books simply makes me respect him even more.

A toast to the Liu’s “The Paper Menagerie and Other Stories”

24885533This Ken Liu guy is good.

Historical fiction and science fiction are similar in that they allow us to live in a world that is not ours to experience. It has either passed or doesn’t exist.

Liu blends myths, historical fiction, and science fiction in a series of cutting stories that take you down a river of emotions. Some navigate you through rapids with jagged rocks, others a tranquil flow of poetry, and some are sudden waterfalls that force you to put down the book to rest your heart.

The fifteen stories from The Paper Menagerie & Other Stories show inspiration from across the board, from a spaceship powered by a solar sail to the general Guan Yu of the Three Kingdoms; from Chinese-American railroad workers in the late 1800s to the manifestation of a physical soul made of ice; from the moral decision of deciding on eternal life, to ethical dilemmas in American bases in Taiwan combating Communism in the 1950s.

The headliner is “The Paper Menagerie” short story from 2011 (available publicly), but that is just a teaser to the ride. It’s a quick read, but be warned – it will be difficult to keep the tears in. This especially hit home for me as I grew up learning english, but english was a difficult second language for my parents.

The stories can be sobering. Sometimes the stories can be “[…] like a gentle kitten is licking the inside of my heart.”

I think the writing is similar to the imagination of the Three Body Problem Trilogy (especially Death’s End) or the beauty of Kalanithi’s When Breath Becomes Air”. Liu is known as the translator for the TBP trilogy but here he shows his dynamism in ideas.
Even if you’ve never read either, give The Paper Menagerie a shot.

“The History of Rome” Podcast

Few weeks ago, I finally finished the The History of Rome podcast by Mike Duncan. After 5 months I slogged through 179 25-minute podcasts covering 800 years of the Roman republic and Roman emperors.

I came for the content but stayed for the author. Duncan has a professional but colloquial tone that is just perfect for traversing the dozens of consuls, emperors, barbarians and chaos across hundreds of years.

There are no words that can summarize all of this, from Rome nearly falling to Hannibal’s elephants in 200 BC to salting the fields over the burnt remains of Carthage after the 3rd Punic War. From the (possibly fake) “Et tu brutus?” of Caesar’s assassination to Augustus’s full transition from republic to dictatorship. From the Jewish revolts, which actually happened after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ himself, to Diocletian’s purges, to Constantine’s mandate of Christian equality 300 years later, to Christianity becoming the official religion under Theodosius few decades later. From Hadrian’s wall and the crisis of the third century to Aurelian to Diocletian’s bureaucratic reforms we see a long and chaotic history.

Despite brutal, ridiculous, stupid, and incompetent leaders in Roman history, the empire chugged on. Sometimes we panic about crazy actors in the modern world, but the world has survived through so much more.

Comparing the Fall of Rome to Modern America

Rome and America are often compared because it was the republic and hegemon of it’s era. Inevitably, the fall of Rome is a persistent harbinger for the fate of the USA.

Is modern America anywhere near the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century? It probably isn’t even close.

Is modern America anywhere near the fall of the Roman Republic right around 50AD? Closer – as there are more references and henceforth potential of a collective self-fulfilling prophecy. Shakespeare in the Park got in some trouble depicting the assassination of a Trump-esque Caesar in modern day times.

Politically, convention is constantly being broken for game theory. This is what Duncan cites as one of the reasons for the fall of the republic:

“Take the Gorsuch thing, denying the Supreme Court seat for a whole year. You can’t undo something like that. From now on, it feels like if you don’t have the presidency and the Senate controlled by one party, we’re just going to have empty Supreme Court seats. Because neither party now has any incentive to give in. So what’s that going to start doing to the judiciary? —- Mike Duncan interview with The Nation, What the US can learn from the fall of Rome

This single thing won’t tip the scale, but time will tell how this momentum and precedent pans out in the next 50 years.

Why bother with history?

Learning history is like a defensive patent. We need to learn history when it isn’t politicized, so we can have a critical eye when history is actually used to push an agenda.

Otherwise you get garbage like this (speech in 1979 denouncing government programs):

“The Christians were the last to resist the tyranny of the Roman Welfare State. Until 313 A.D., they had been persecuted because of their unwillingness to worship the emperor. But in that year they struck a deal with Emperor Constantine, who granted them toleration in exchange for their acquiescence to his authority. In the year 380, a sadly-perverted Christianity became the official state religion under Emperor Theodosius. Rome’s decline was like a falling rock from this point on. Reed, Fall of Rome and Modern Parallels, 1979

This is non-sensical rhetoric. Christians weren’t resisting the welfare state, they were resisting paganism. How does gaining religious tolerance translate to succumbing to welfare? Arguments like these simply mix and match historical half-facts, attribute causation willy nilly, and simply serve to rile people up.

Going down this rabbit hole there is still so much to learn.

This also makes me want to play more historical games like Civ. Roman game references, literature references, all sorts of references that make so much more sense now.

Exciting times.

Reviewing 25 more iOS games (circa Feb 2018)

The past half year has been more games than I’d like, but it’s been a good process of exploration of enjoyable games. Not all of these are very new, but there definitely is a bias towards new games.


All played with iOS 7 plus. Bold = Paid game. 

I think these check off all the boxes of an amazing game. Highly recommend.
  1. Banner Saga 2 (Grid Strategy)
These are absolutely amazing games with one or two things that prevent it from being perfect. I absolutely finished as much as I could, or uninstalled to prevent myself from being debilitated by getting too addicted. 
  1. Star Wars KOTOR (RPG)
  2. Titanfall Assault (Strategy Duel?? e.g. Clash Royale)
  3. Arena of Valor (MOBA)
  4. Through the Ages (Board Game)
  5. Elder Scrolls: Legends (Card Game)
  6. Lost Portal (Card Game)
  7. Agent A (Escape Room)
These are pretty solid games with no huge complaints. I’m happy to have played them however, I wouldn’t go out of my way to play them too much. Some of these (i.e. Vainglory) are supplanted by better versions above.  
  1. Vainglory (MOBA)
  2. Reigns, Her Majesty (Decision Making)
  3. Age of Rivals (Board Game)
  4. Hero Hunters (Shooter)
  5. The Room, Three (Escape Room)
  6. Iron Marines (Strategy)
Some of these I spent a good amount of time on, hoping they’d get better. They mostly ended up being a huge grind and waste of time. I think many of these have brilliant game mechanics but the Free to Play nature of them (along with autoplay) make me regret spending time on them. 
  1. Alchemist’s Code (Grid Strategy)
  2. Lineage 2 (MMORPG)
  3. Rules of Survival (Survival Shooter)
  4. Iron Blade (Swipe RPG)
  5. Dust, AET (Platformer)
Below 6
These games generally disappointed. They were often burdened by equal F2P issues as 7-rated games, but didn’t have great mechanics either. I wouldn’t recommend these.
  1. Ultimate General Gettysberg (Real Time Strategy)
  2. The Trail (Don’t know)
  3. NBA Live (Basketball)
  4. FIFA Live (Soccer)
  5. Onmyoji (RPG)

Onto the Reviews

Banner Saga 2 10

As beautiful and brilliant as the original Banner Saga, with new characters and fun.
I think I spent around 10-20 hours on this game. I really enjoyed the storyline, and the fact that your decisions are so often consequential. (i.e. if one character dies early on then it affects the story options later in the game).
This is one of the perfect and fun strategy grid series that I cannot recommend enough to new mobile gamers.

Star Wars KOTOR 9

+10 for being a brilliant story with tons of consequential decisions throughout the game. You don’t only pursue good or evil in the main storyline. Rather, these decision points exist in almost all minor interactions and side quests. You can choose to be helpful, or a huge asshole across the board.
-1 for controls.
This is a 9 because the controls aren’t that great. Definitely would have preferred WASD w/ clicking, but the mobility was absolutely worth it.

Titanfall Assault 9

Titanfall Assault is an isometric Clash Royale clone, and executes it extremely effectively. 
For those who haven’t played CR, you strategically drop units across the map to win capture points. The units move autonomously to capture objectives. Each unit has different costs and counters, so you have to manage resources to out-duel your opponent. 
I really like the capture points system rather than just base race. These packaged 3-5 minute games make it easy to squeeze in throughout the day.

Lost Portal 9 

This is a pretty good card game that rivals the two peer games Hearthstone & Elder Scrolls:Legends. The mechanics are much easier to learn and a bit more forgiving. 
The brilliance of this game is difficulty progression. You have to make nuanced but steady improvements in your deck to battle your way through the ~6 stages in the game. Each stage has 3-4 levels, each level has 3-4 floors, each floor has 3-4 opponents, so 6 x 3 x 3 x 3 gives us at least 100+ unique opponents to power through.

Through the Ages 9

Never played the board game, but this this screams to me very good port” of a very fun board game game. This game’s resource management and counting rivals the complexity of Agricola (i.e. blows Settlers of Catan out of the water), and the app collapses this into a very functional UI and does all the counting for you.
Ultimately a highly addicting game, and with challenging CPUs. I can’t imagine the commitment needed to play an online game, so I won’t try that. In the end, absolutely worth it if you love board games and want to harden those chops.

Arena of Valor 9

This is legitimately a good game. AoV basically a League of Legends clone that has taken China by storm. There are some others (i.e. Mobile Legends, Vainglory, etc.) but I believe AoV is the best at this moment. Games are around 25 minutes for a ranked 5v5. Matchmaking is nearly instant.
A combination of joystick & auto-target simplifies the otherwise difficult mechanics in LoL, and allows you to focus on the fun parts (i.e. positioning, team fights, etc). Admittedly, it is a bit harder to specific units for single-target spells, but that’s for another day.
Also, just like league, this has very limited pay to play” mechanics so you can be on
One of the main issues with Vainglory, for example, was if you fat fingered an attack, you would move towards the enemy rather than attacking & kiting. 

Agent A 9

This is a fun, cutely animated escape room” type game. You are Agent A, trying to sneak into enemy operative La Rouge’s” to stop her from eliminating your entire intelligence team. The colors are bright, so It is a great combination of playfulness, challenge, and a nice thick plot. Altogether a pleasant play.

Elder Scrolls: Legends 9

This one is a brilliant card game that has equally fun if not funner mechanics than Hearthstone. Matchmaking was very reasonable, and I don’t remember having any problems with progression. This is one of the few games I uninstalled to prevent the addiction from getting too far.

Hero Hunters 8

I think the issue is that early on it’s very non-obvious where the strategy in the game is (other than composition). It is like playing some bite-sized version of Time Crisis on mobile, where the big mechanics involve moving between cover”, switching between characters, and shooting enemies.
I liked it but it was fun for about… 2 hours until I moved on.

Age of Rivals 8

I downloaded this in an attempt to play a board game on the computer. It actually has very difficult mechanics and non-trivial CPU difficulty. Minus points for not allowing you to adjust your deck! This is a pretty annoying part.
This is one of the few board games” where I think multiplayer is pretty reasonable each game is < 20 minutes. I think I’m scared of going back to it because it Is easy to forget all the strategies very quickly. 

The Room Three 8

This game is one of those escape the room” type games that is slightly creepy but intricately designed and absolutely beautiful. I didn’t finish it entirely, but enough to love and appreciate the artistry.

Iron Marines 8

This is an attempted Starcraft-style RTS that is much more simplistic. I don’t think these types of games work too well on mobile, and in the end I couldn’t really figure out how to effectively deal with the mechanics. 

Rules of Survival 8

+ for implementation
– for difficulty, generally not worth getting into this genre (though i guess you can say the same about FPS, RTS, MOBA  etc.)
I played this game for like 2 hours, and decided this PUBG/Fortnite style game was not for me. This is such an experience-driven game that as a newbie you are completely dead in the water in this free for all battle royale. The mechanics for this game are admittedly very good and I imagine almost as fun as the PC version.
Overall plus points for implementation, and minus for difficulty, generally not worth getting into this genre (though i guess you can say the same about FPS, RTS, MOBA  etc.)

Onirim 7

This is another classic board game/card game port to Mobile. It is kind of fun in the beginning, but effectively a sophisticated version of Solitaire with different cards and rules. If that is your thing, you will love Onirim. Otherwise, it is a solid free game, easy to learn, and worth a shot.

Lineage 2 7

+1 for well designed open world, no stamina in F2P
-1 for Autoplay, lack of customization
I really wanted to vent by playing a brainless Diablo-style clone. Lineage is a beautiful open world game with reasonable characters and a diverse map. There is no end of things to do, and stamina is not an issue.
However, the big issue with Lineage (and a lot of modern games coming out of asia) is Autoplay”. In this mode, your character plays itself, and you end up doing little more than equipping your character and deciding which missions to embark on to get in on all the promotions. Yes, you don’t *have* to autoplay but once the option is available it becomes a heavy disadvantage not to use it.
It also gets minus points for lack of customization (everyone has same spells), and lots of fetch/kill quests.

Dust AET 7

Sideways platformer. Pretty fun but in the end it is some sort of mindless mashing of attacks and combos. The story doesn’t seem good enough to make up for that.

Alchemist’s Code 7

This is a mobile F2P version of Final Fantasy Tactics. I think that it is legitimately a fun game and has good mechanics. It has a grinding structure where you can get most of the characters.
The story is pretty crap, and overall I just couldn’t bear myself to finish or continue playing. In the end, pretty addicting but overall “wouldn’t reinstall”.

Character Sympathy (+10 more rankings!)

Character Sympathy

I’ve discovered that how I sympathize with a lead character heavily influences how much I like a book.

Its not enough to simply to have empathy and understand a character’s reasoning. As I read a book, there is a part of me that wants to be a participant of the story.

*sympathy is when you share the feelings of another; empathy is when you understand the feelings of another but do not necessarily share them. (the internet)

I value humility and intellectualism. I’m averse is to cockiness and unnecessary heroics. I appreciate complex, flawed characters. I’m dislike infallible characters that dominate their opponents with ease.

This is why I could not stand Ready Player One (and a lesser extent, Name of the Wind). This is why I enjoyed the Dispossessed (and why I loved The Witcher III).

Of course, there are instances where there main character is insufficient, but supplemented by a strong supporting cast. “Kafka on the Shore” has a really amazing supporting cast that helps to promote the coming of age story of Kafka. The zombie book “Girl with all the Gifts” wasn’t really about the main zombie girl Melanie as much as the surviving humans around her.

Ranking 10 Recent Reads

In general, but also from the perspective of protagonist sympathy. These are pretty much all scifi/fantasy, to some extent (if you include zombie books and murakami’s shenanigans

Rank (rating) Book, Author Protagonist Protaganist Description
1 5*The Dispossessed, Le Guin adult scientist adult
2 5* The Fifth Season, Jemisin 1 kid, 1 teen, 1 adult nice kid, sassy teen, seasoned adult
3 5*Old Man’s War, Scalzi adult old grandpa
4 5*Kafka on the Shore, Murakami teen weirdly introspective teen
5 5*Dune, Herbert teen coming of age
6 5* Foundation, Asimov adult pretty normal people, some ‘heroes’
7 4* The Girl with All the Gifts, Carey kid crazy brilliant kid
8 4* The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Adams adult & alien sassy AF
9 4* Foundation and Empire, Asimov adults pretty normal people
10 2* Ready Player One, Cline teen smart but cocky

1. The Dispossessed, Le Guin (1974)

The Dispossessed is, more or less, a man’s struggles and realizations in comparing a poor but well-run Communist/Anarchist society with an ultra-efficient but highly political capitalist world. From a character perspective, Shevek is a genius physicist that is generally stable but suspect to his emotions.

This is top because I know Shevek story will stay strong in my mind as the books below get reduced to faint abstractions over the years.

The full review is in a previous post!

2. The Fifth Season, Jemisin (2015)

“And since stonelore would be harder to remember if it was full of phrases like ‘watch for the inverted fulcrum of a conical torus,’ we get centers and circles. Accuracy is sacrificed in the name of better poetry.”

I love this because it is the essence of Jemisin’s writing. She trades obscure vocabulary for colloquial thoughts and dialogue – The Fifth Season reads so smoothly that it was over before I knew it.

The characters follow common tropes. The innocent, curious young girl. The prideful, sassy teenager. The seasoned adult. I believe these tropes actually enhanced my experience.

The Fifth Season isn’t about characters taking weird, dark or unpredictable turns – rather it’s how they adapt to a world constantly changing, a world constantly on edge of collapse, and a world where you are the enemy despite how much you want to help. Decisions are generally rational, but people get carried away by emotions. These tropes make people realistic, believable, and their actions easy to emphasize with.

3. Old Man’s War, Scalzi (2005)

Old Man’s War is a mix of hilarity, somberness, and lots of guns. It gets really funky really fast, and once you adjust you realize there’s quite a bit of space philosophy to go with fighting aliens across the universe.

The protagonist is generally jaded, sarcastic and fun to introspect alongside. That being said, I think the character himself wasn’t all that memorable – the excitement of the world & story is what carries Old Man’s War to #3.

4. Kafka By the Shore, Murakami (2006)

Oh man, what a weird book. It starts unbelievably slowly, but Kafka’s story gradually becomes more complex, interesting as it gets weirder and weirder. The novel concludes with a powerful, resounding and emotional finish.

Kafka himself is intelligent, introspective, and conflicted. As a 15 year old dumped into an mystical world, he makes mistakes, suffers, learns, and powers through a cruel Oedipal prophecy.

Also Oshima (the librarian) was an absolute badass. And these fan illustrations are amazing.

5. Dune, Herbert (1965)

Dune was a great story, fun plot, and has all the shenanigans of the modern hero story (loyalty and betrayal, sacrifice, twists, yadayadaya). All around a very solid book but mostly if you appreciate it as the first of its’ kind, as a scifi/fantasy epic. It’s seen to have heavily inspired Star Wars, alongside many other story based science fiction stories.

6. Foundation, Asimov (1951)

This Asimov is one of the original scifi books (written in the 1940s). It is a brilliant story of prediction (psychohistory, which is basically macroeconomics on steroids), political heroism and the world as it could be. It is a sophisticated space equivalent of the Fall of Rome.

Foundation focuses on political relationships and world building, and less on realism/character development. The heroes are brilliant, fallible, but not necessarily complex or developing characters.

7. The Girl with All the Gifts, Carey (2015)

Brilliant storytelling and a cute first person view of a young intellectual zombie 10 y/o girl. I’m not a huge zombie reader, but this really showed how love can play a huge part in people when their brains are getting eaten. It wasn’t extremely special (hence a 4*) but no real knocks and overall a solid book

8. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, Adams (1979)

This is a truly revolutionary and ridiculous book in the genre of sci-fi, and I am all the better for having read it. That being said, I can’t say it was a either a mind-altering or extremely sophisticated experience. Now I think about it, it’s pretty much the Rick and Morty of the 70s. Solid stuff.

9. Foundation and Empire, Asimov (1952)

The second book of the Foundation Trilogy is a show of inevitability of sociopolitical nature of humanity under certain conditions. It had a solid story and a few great twists, but the characters were mostly static and predictable. I think its worth a read to understand Asimov but there are better books out there.

10. Ready Player One, Cline (2011)

This is probably the single worst book I’ve read in the past 10 years.

On the plus side, it was a great page-turner. Cline crams every possible gaming and pop reference from the 80s in a action-packed “adventure”. Unfortunately, the main character is a cocky teenager that somehow just happens to be the best at every game in the world. There are no real twists, no real complexity in any of the characters (both good and bad), and no real redeeming features.

I was hoping for a book that bathes in its own absurdity. As I hoped my way for two thirds of the book, it became clearer that it was simply oblivious at its own ridiculousness.

The only consolation here is that Andy Wier (author of The Martian) did a spin-off short story called Lacero that is actually good. Give it a read!

Thanks for reading, and let me know what you are reading!